The following passage on language contact in Morocco was deleted for reasons of space from my review of Grant’s Oxford Book of Language Contact (2019) [Grant-Lang] in the Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages:
There are two historically divergent dialects of Arabic in contact in Morocco, the pre-Hilarian, dating from the initial Arab invasions and rooted in the coastal trade centers; and the Hilarian, resulting from a 12th century renewal of Arabic via Bedouin migrations during the Almorad dynasty.
The Moroccan vernacular, Darija, is internally varied but distinct from and in continual contact with Standard Arabic.
There are also Berber (Amazigh) substrata and three European languages involved, distributed geographically and sociologically and overlaying the Arabic and the Amazigh mozaics (Mrini and Bond 2018).
French and Spanish affected Moroccan Arabic differentially during different phases of colonialism and today English is in the mix. Moreover, younger Moroccans in urban areas code-switch compulsively in SMS messages, often using the Roman alphabet with additional numbers for Arabic letters (3 for ‘ayn and 7 for ḥā, among others). French is still the language many prefer to talk about things romantic or intimate, this perhaps out of a sense of propriety (Hall 2015, pp. 112-121