PD and Diverticulitis

Based on the search results provided, there appears to be an association between colonic diverticular disease (CDD) and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD):

The first study12 found that the risk of Parkinson’s disease was 27% higher in the CDD cohort compared to the control group without CDD. Specifically, CDD patients aged 65 and older had a 1.25-fold increased risk of developing PD compared to those without CDD in the same age group.


The proposed mechanisms linking CDD and PD risk include:14

  1. The abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in enteric neurons, which causes autonomic dysfunction and gastrointestinal hypomotility, leading to the development of diverticula.
  2. The altered gut microbiome in PD patients, which can promote Lewy body pathology and intestinal inflammation, contributing to CDD.

In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that colonic diverticular disease may be associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Patients with CDD should be monitored for signs of PD, as the risk of this neurodegenerative disorder appears to be higher in this population.12


Multidirectional associations between the gut microbiota and Parkinson’s disease, updated information from the perspectives of humoral pathway, cellular immune pathway and neuronal pathway.



Three causes: 1) genetic, 2) environmental toxins and 3) gut malfunction, which, alas, just kicks the can down the road, since where does the gut malfunction come from.

  1. Mother had it. 
  1. I was raised in the East End of Houston, known for chemical affluents.
  1. Before my onset, I had diverticulitis, and was successfully operated on for it.





East End Hustle, Frank Vitale, et al

Portrait-robot / East End Hustle

Programmation 2021-2022 de Club illico : une année exceptionnelle pour les passionnés de fiction !Programmation 2021-2022 de Club illico : une année exceptionnelle pour les passionnés de fiction !


Andrée Pelletier

East End Hustle (1976) ⭐ 4.6 | Action, Crime, Drama

East End Hustle

DVD Talk

East End Hustle

Frank Vitale was born on March 8, 1945 in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. He is a director and producer, known for Montreal Main (1974), Anorgasmia (2017) and 10 Years of Thomas & Friends (1999).

Montreal Main

The Rubber Gun (1977) ⭐ 6.6 | Crime, Drama

Anorgasmia (2017) | Drama

No Reservations: Frank Vitale Goes Behind the Scenes with Anthony Bourdain in Naples

Viet phonology < Wiki



Finals : When stops /p, t, k/ occur at the end of words, they have no audible release ([p̚, t̚, k̚]):

đáp ‘to reply’ /ɗap/ [ɗap̚]
mát ‘cool’ /mat/ [mat̚]
khác ‘different’ /xak/ [xak̚]

 When the velar consonants /k, ŋ/ are after /u, o, ɔ/, they are articulated with a simultaneous bilabial closure [k͡p̚, ŋ͡m] (i.e. doubly articulated) or are strongly labialized [k̚ʷ, ŋʷ].

đục ‘murky’ /ɗuk/ [ɗuk͡p̚], [ɗʊk̚ʷ]
độc ‘poison’ /ɗok/ [ɗə̆wk͡p̚], [ɗə̆wk̚ʷ]
đọc ‘to read’ /ɗɔk/ [ɗăwk͡p̚], [ɗăwk̚ʷ]
ung ‘cancer’ /uŋ/ [uŋ͡m], [ʊŋʷ]
ông ‘man’/’grandfather’ /oŋ/ [ə̆wŋ͡m], [ə̆wŋʷ]
ong ‘bee’ /ɔŋ/ [ăwŋ͡m], [ăwŋʷ]

Hanoi finals

Analysis of final ch, nh

The pronunciation of syllable-final ch and nh in Hanoi Vietnamese has had different analyses. One analysis, that of Thompson (1965) has them as being phonemes /c, ɲ/, where /c/ contrasts with both syllable-final t /t/ and c /k/, and /ɲ/ contrasts with syllable-final n /n/ and ng /ŋ/. Final /c, ɲ/ is, then, identified with syllable-initial /c, ɲ/.

Another analysis has final ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨nh⟩ as representing different spellings of the velar phonemes /k/ and /ŋ/ that occur after upper front vowels /i/ (orthographic ⟨i⟩) and /e/ (orthographic ⟨ê⟩). This analysis interprets orthographic ⟨ach⟩ and ⟨anh⟩ as an underlying /ɛ/, which becomes phonetically open and diphthongized: /ɛk/ → [ăjk̟̚], /ɛŋ/ → [ăjŋ̟].[10] This diphthongization also affects ⟨êch⟩ and ⟨ênh⟩: /ek/ → [ə̆jk̟̚], /eŋ/ → [ə̆jŋ̟].

Arguments for the second analysis include the limited distribution of final [c] and [ɲ], the gap in the distribution of [k] and [ŋ] which do not occur after [i] and [e], the pronunciation of ⟨ach⟩ and ⟨anh⟩ as [ɛc] and [ɛɲ] in certain conservative central dialects,[11] and the patterning of [k]~[c] and [ŋ]~[ɲ] in certain reduplicated words. Additionally, final [c] is not articulated as far forward as the initial [c]: [c] and [ɲ] are pre-velar [k̟, ŋ̟] with no alveolar contact.[12]

The first analysis closely follows the surface pronunciation of a slightly different Hanoi dialect than the second. In this dialect, the /a/ in /ac/ and /aɲ/ is not diphthongized but is actually articulated more forward, approaching a front vowel [æ]. This results in a three-way contrast between the rimes ăn [æ̈n] vs. anh [æ̈ɲ] vs. ăng [æ̈ŋ]. For this reason, a separate phonemic /ɲ/ is posited.

Table of Hanoi finals

The following rimes ending with velar consonants have been diphthongized in the Hanoi dialect, but /i/, /u/ and /ɨ/ are more open:[11]

ong, oc /awŋ/, /awk/ [ăwŋ͡m], [ăwk͡p̚]
ông, ôc /əwŋ/, /əwk/ [ə̆wŋ͡m], [ə̆wk͡p̚]
ung, uc /uŋ/, /uk/ [ʊŋ͡m], [ʊk͡p̚]
ưng, ưc, ưn, ưt /ɨŋ/, /ɨk/, /ɨn/, /ɨt/ [ɯ̽ŋ], [ɯ̽k̟̚], [ɯ̽n], [ɯ̽t̚]
anh, ach /ɛŋ/, /ɛk/ [ăjŋ̟], [ăjk̟̚]
ênh, êch /eŋ/, /ek/ [ə̆jŋ̟], [ə̆jk̟̚]
inh, ich /iŋ/, /ik/ [ɪŋ̟], [ɪk̟̚]

With the above phonemic analyses, the following is a table of rimes ending in /n, t, ŋ, k/ in the Hanoi dialect:

/ă/ /a/ /ɛ/ /ɔ/, /aw/ /ə̆/ /ə/ /e/ /o/ /i/ /ɨ/ /u/ /iə̯/ /ɨə̯/ /uə̯/
/n/ ăn an en on ân ơn ên ôn in ưn un iên ươn uôn
/t/ ăt at et ot ât ơt êt ôt it ưt ut iêt ươt uôt
/ŋ/ ăng ang anh ong âng ênh ông inh ưng ung iêng ương uông
/k/ ăc ac ach oc âc êch ôc ich ưc uc iêc ươc uôc



Sigismund Schomo Freud

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/ FROYD,[2] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfrɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939

Freud suggested to Fliess in 1897 that addictions, including that to tobacco, were substitutes for masturbation, “the one great habit”

Solgar Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 250 MCG (10,000 IU)

Super Theravite-M 10 MCG (50% of daily value)


Worthy of note

Things PD taught me (and I’ve learned)

I’ve grown to appreciate work of Anthony Etherin, 


 a poet  “specialising in form and constraint”.  His footprint on the a social mediainternet seems to me to be most appropriate to the nature of his work. #oulipo #concretepoetry.

Durrell as poet, Duh!

What is a libido? Or is it “the”?