Here is some Kouri-Vini I lifted from Twitter /X

 Zòt konné konmen mo konné mo çé bitako? M’ap bwa tafya dan bokal

You know how I know that I’m a hick.  I drink moonshine out of a jar.

In French, including Cajun French, this would be something like: 

Tu sais comment je sais que je suis un bitaco. Je bois tafya  d’un bocal.  

Google  Trans set for Haitian Creole gives:

Ou konnen ki jan mwen konnen ke mwen se yon bitaco. Mwen bwè bwason ki soti nan yon bokal.

“Bitaco” is in Cajun French, Kouri-Vini and Haitian Creole, but not in standard French, including Canadian French. Tafya is both K-V and Cajun French, but nor Haitian.

For standard info see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Creole and https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_French

Kouri-Vini has only 6000 speakers left, Louisiana French maybe 200,000. 

https://www.instagram.com/reel/C2u4dEwLbI9/?igsh=ZDE1MWVjZGVmZQ==

https://www.instagram.com/reel/C2u4dEwLbI9/?igsh=ZDE1MWVjZGVmZQ== 

flk_reg.jpg

   

     

https://alteritas.net/GXL/?p=5189

https://www.threads.net/@georgelang13/post/C2vptUDvF-p/?igshid=OGQ5ZDc2ODk2ZA==

Johnny Cash and MSA

Johnny Cash

Multiple system atrophy

Orthostatic hypotension

It’s all in your head, whether it’s mental confusion or a skinned knee. All disease is experienced through the nervous system.

 

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_system_atrophy

  

< All known mammalian prion diseases were caused by the prion protein (PrP) until 2015, when a prion form of alpha-synuclein was hypothesized to cause multiple system atrophy (MSA).[10]

“The faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wandering attention, over and over again, is the very root of judgment, character, and will.” [ZB: 69–71]   

Chatgpt     

The text provides a comprehensive overview of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and its underlying mechanisms. It explains that PD is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the loss of dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra region of the brain. The symptoms of PD include disruptions in gait, freezing of steps, loss of balance, facial-masking, altered handwriting, weakened voice, slow movements, tremors, rigidity, and a general loss of dexterity.

The text also describes the role of dopamine in the brain and its impact on motor control. It explains that dopamine released by the substantia nigra amplifies activity in the direct pathway between the cortex and muscle nerves, supporting cortical activation of movement. Reduction of dopamine in the substantia nigra leads to a decrease in “higher” direct cortical control of muscles. Additionally, dopamine is important in regulating the frequency of brain waves, particularly in the basal ganglia and subthalamic regions, which are important for the preparation of voluntary movements.

The text mentions that while pharmaceuticals like levodopa can alleviate the symptoms of PD, there is currently no cure for the disease. It also discusses Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) as a non-pharmaceutical option that has been effective in relieving symptoms in many PD patients.

Overall, the text provides a detailed and informative explanation of PD, its symptoms, and the underlying mechanisms involved. It also highlights the current limitations in treatment options and the ongoing research in the field.

Kampavata and Chinese Approaches to PD

Parkinson’s Disease (Kampavata): Understanding the Ayurvedic Approach – California College of Ayurveda

Medical research has determined the cause of the condition to be a loss of function of specialized cells in the brain stem which stimulate the production of the neurotransmitter, dopamine.

Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are currently defined by their clinical features, with α-synuclein pathology as the gold standard to establish the definitive diagnosis. We propose that, given biomarker advances enabling accurate detection of pathological α-synuclein (ie, misfolded and aggregated) in CSF using the seed amplification assay, it is time to redefine Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as neuronal α-synuclein disease rather than as clinical syndromes. This major shift from a clinical to a biological definition of Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies takes advantage of the availability of tools to assess the gold standard for diagnosis of neuronal α-synuclein (n-αsyn) in human beings during life. Neuronal α-synuclein disease is defined by the presence of pathological n-αsyn species detected in vivo (S; the first biological anchor) regardless of the presence of any specific clinical syndrome  <   

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(23)00405-2/fulltext

10 Fascinating Facts About Parkinson’s Disease You Probably Didn’t Know – David Perlmutter M.D.

Parkinson’s disease in traditional Chinese medicine

          

Multiple System Atrophy Clinical Presentation: History and Physical Examination

PD is sad to open doors stimulatee creativity. At worst it will be an aggravation on the way to death.

Notes to Neurobiology for Dummies

Neurobiology For Dummies
Amthor, Frank
Citation (Chicago Style): Amthor, Frank. Neurobiology For Dummies. Wiley, 2020. Kindle edition.

Part I: Getting Started with Neurobiology
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 1: Welcome to the World of Neurobiology > Page 7 · Location 631
Generally, the human genetic program creates a brain with more neurons than any other animal, allowing for richer experience to produce a unique kind of intelligence.
Highlight(blue) – Introducing Neurons > Page 9 · Location 677
eukaryotes (cells that have a nucleus). Soon after eukaryotes appeared, multicellular organisms came on the scene.
Highlight(blue) – Introducing Neurons > Page 11 · Location 722
Different muscles must be contracted in an organized manner, and information from the senses must be sent to remote parts of the body neurons to coordinate movement.
Highlight(blue) – Introducing Neurons > Page 12 · Location 750
Bionics is the field of applying biological principles of operation to man-made devices.
Highlight(blue) – Organizing the Nervous System > Page 14 · Location 788
The autonomic nervous system has major subdivisions into sympathetic and parasympathetic branches that tend to oppose each other’s actions. The sympathetic system prepares us for action in the fight-or-flight mode, while the parasympathetic system organizes resources for digestion, and the maintenance and conservation of energy.
Highlight(blue) – Organizing the Nervous System > Page 15 · Location 823
primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PMC), contain motor
Highlight(blue) – Perceiving the World, Thinking, Learning, and Remembering > Page 18 · Location 888
The olfactory system is unique in being divided between a pathway that projects (although indirectly) through the thalamus, of which we are aware, and a pathway that is non-thalamic, which influences our behavior, but of which we are not directly aware.
Highlight(blue) – Perceiving the World, Thinking, Learning, and Remembering > Page 18 · Location 894
A behavioral hallmark of mammals is they can change their behavior through learning.
Highlight(blue) – Perceiving the World, Thinking, Learning, and Remembering > Page 19 · Location 902
One important aspect of the reconstructive aspect of memory is that the act of reconstruction can distort the memory. Suggestions, guesses, and events after the memory can affect the reconstruction such that they become part of, and indistinguishable from, subsequent reconstructions.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 24 · Location 1027
each unique form of a single gene is called an allele.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 25 · Location 1054
Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Thymine (T)
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 26 · Location 1086
mitosis, which is itself divided into different phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 27 · Location 1092
(RNA is a nucleotide like DNA, except is has the nucleotide uracil substituted for thymine.)
Bookmark – Getting into Genetics > Page 27 · Location 1094
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 27 · Location 1095
called base pairing.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 27 · Location 1099
The genetic code is a sequence of three nucleotides (called a codon) that specifies an amino acid.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 27 · Location 1113
that in RNA the nucleotide uracil takes the place that thymine occupies in DNA.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 28 · Location 1129
heterophilic nuclear RNA (hnRNA).
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 29 · Location 1147
Methylation and histone deacetylation may act simultaneously to control DNA expression.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 30 · Location 1166
reverse transcription, which is the transfer of information from RNA to make new DNA. Reverse transcription occurs in retroviruses such as HIV and is a common feature of the replication cycle for many viruses.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 30 · Location 1186
Epigenetics is the change in gene expression (and thus, cell phenotype, which we discuss earlier in this chapter) due to mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.
Highlight(blue) – Getting into Genetics > Page 31 · Location 1199
totipotent stem cells (cells that can develop into any cell type) differentiate
Highlight(blue) – Meeting Cell Molecules: Important Ions and Proteins > Page 32 · Location 1213
The most important ions that flow through neuronal membrane channels are sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium.
Highlight(blue) – Meeting Cell Molecules: Important Ions and Proteins > Page 32 · Location 1217
Sodium entering into cells can trigger action potentials and lead to synaptic release, two crucial neural functions.
Bookmark – Meeting Cell Molecules: Important Ions and Proteins > Page 32 · Location 1223
Highlight(yellow) – Meeting Cell Molecules: Important Ions and Proteins > Page 32 · Location 1228
Normally magnesium does not pass through neuronal membranes. However, when the neuron is close to the resting potential, magnesium, attracted to the negative charge inside, binds in the extracellular “mouth” of the NMDA glutamate receptor. This receptor will not open unless, in addition to binding glutamate released from a pre-synaptic axon terminal, the membrane is partially depolarized. This depolarization (which is often provided by nearby non-NMDA excitatory receptors) reduces the potential across the membrane and thereby favors the release of the magnesium ion, allowing sodium and some calcium to flow through the channel.
Highlight(blue) – Meeting Cell Molecules: Important Ions and Proteins > Page 33 · Location 1240
Membrane proteins have a three-dimensional configuration.
Highlight(blue) – Peeking at the Parts of a Cell > Page 35 · Location 1282
hormones—chemicals released by a cell in one part of the organism that act as messages to cells in other parts of the organism.
Highlight(blue) – Peeking at the Parts of a Cell > Page 35 · Location 1294
exocytosis
Highlight(blue) – Peeking at the Parts of a Cell > Page 35 · Location 1296
The sequence of neurotransmission is quite similar to hormonal communication. Neurotransmission differs, however, in that neurons actually contact other specific neurons—or muscles or gland cells—directly at synapses, where information flows from one neuron to another across the synaptic cleft, the gap between a pre-and post-synaptic cell. The neurotransmitter released usually activates only receptors directly across the synaptic cleft in a single postsynaptic cell. This allows for significantly more complex communication with neurons than is possible with hormones.
Highlight(blue) – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 36 · Location 1311
phospholipids.
Highlight(blue) – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 36 · Location 1312
rigid molecules such as cellulose,
Highlight(blue) – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 37 · Location 1326
amphipathic.
Bookmark – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 38 · Location 1345
Highlight(blue) – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 38 · Location 1350
It’s interesting that the extracellular fluid around cells in animals resembles the seawater in which cells originally evolved. If you think this wasn’t an accident, you’re right!
Bookmark – Setting Boundaries: Cell Membrane Lipids > Page 38 · Location 1353
Highlight(blue) – Knowing the Neuron: Not Just Another Cell > Page 43 · Location 1427
The axon conducts action potentials, millisecond-long electrical pulses that move from the cell body to the synaptic terminals of the axon, where they cause neurotransmitter to be released onto postsynaptic neurons.
Highlight(blue) – Knowing the Neuron: Not Just Another Cell > Page 44 · Location 1451
Above this threshold, the rate of action potentials, or spikes, is generally proportional to the net excitatory (depolarizing) current.
Highlight(blue) – When Things Go Wrong: Genetics and Neurological Illness > Page 46 · Location 1506
transgenic animals
Highlight(blue) – When Things Go Wrong: Genetics and Neurological Illness > Page 46 · Location 1520
Typically, the introduced DNA is packaged within a vector that is used to get the DNA inside cells within the body. One common vector is a virus, because viruses normally function by binding the cell membrane and inserting their DNA or RNA into the cell. The contents of a virus can be modified to produce a human gene. Also, exogenous DNA may be introduced that encodes a therapeutic protein that works like a drug rather than the DNA corresponding to any actual human gene.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at Membrane Channels > Page 48 · Location 1567
Ion-selective channels Ion-selective channels, as their name implies, control the movement of certain ions through plasma membranes.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at Membrane Channels > Page 49 · Location 1588
Secretory mechanisms Neurons release neurotransmitters at their presynaptic terminals.
Highlight(blue) – Discovering Diffusion and Voltage > Page 53 · Location 1668
The Nernst equation—developed from basic thermodynamic principles by the 19th-century German chemist Walter Nernst—gives us the answer. It gives the “balance point” (called the equilibrium potential) between the diffusion and voltage forces,
Highlight(blue) – Discovering Diffusion and Voltage > Page 55 · Location 1707
 The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz equation determines the voltage that results from ionic currents across the membrane.
Highlight(blue) – Signaling with Electricity in Neurons > Page 57 · Location 1752
Neurons receive messages in the form of neurotransmitters through ligand-gated channels on their dendrites, soma, and, in some cases, axon. These inputs are excitatory if the receptors flux sodium ions, inhibitory if they flux potassium or chloride.
Highlight(yellow) – Making Spikes with Sodium and Potassium Channels > Page 60 · Location 1835
Refractory periods and spike rate coding
Highlight(blue) – Making Spikes with Sodium and Potassium Channels > Page 60 · Location 1844
One interesting result of this second factor is that the relationship between synaptic input current and spike rate in most neurons is more like a logarithmic function than a linear function.
Highlight(blue) – Making Spikes with Sodium and Potassium Channels > Page 61 · Location 1854
Creating an accurate model of the activity of just one neuron—the complex, time-varying changes in its thousands of synapses and millions of voltage-dependent membrane ion channels—can take 100 percent of the processing power of a quite large computer.
Highlight(orange) – Making Spikes with Sodium and Potassium Channels > Page 62 · Location 1862
cable theory,
Highlight(blue) – Making Spikes with Sodium and Potassium Channels > Page 64 · Location 1920
unmyelinated axons,
Highlight(blue) – Insulating with Glial Cells > Page 66 · Location 1941
The glial cells that do this are Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system.
Highlight(blue) – Insulating with Glial Cells > Page 66 · Location 1951
nodes of Ranvier,
Bookmark – Chapter 4: Sending Signals: Chemical Release and Electrical Activation > Page 67 · Location 1954
Highlight(blue) – Looking at Synaptic Transmission > Page 68 · Location 1977
receptors). If the ion channel is selectively permeable to sodium (that is, it allows sodium ions to pass), it’s an excitatory receptor. If the channel is permeable to potassium or chloride, it is typically an inhibitory receptor.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at Synaptic Transmission > Page 72 · Location 2078
carbon monoxide.
Highlight(blue) – Being Receptive to Neurotransmitter Receptors > Page 76 · Location 2154
Neuromuscular activation occurs by ionotropic acetylcholine receptors, called nicotinic receptors (because they can be activated by nicotine).
Bookmark – Being Receptive to Neurotransmitter Receptors > Page 77 · Location 2179
Highlight(blue) – Being Receptive to Neurotransmitter Receptors > Page 79 · Location 2229
receptor, but that is effective in producing the same effects as the normal neurotransmitter.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Interneurons and Circuits > Page 82 · Location 2288
Most digital computers are serial devices, executing one instruction at a time. The brain is massively parallel, however, potentially executing billion of actions simultaneously.
Part II: Neuroanatomy: Organizing the Nervous System
Bookmark – Page 83 · Location 2296
Bookmark – Segmenting the Spine > Page 105 · Location 2696
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 106 · Location 2735
The spinal cord is an extended brain whose different segments (with some overlap) control the four limbs (and other body parts) to act in unison. However, the spinal cord lacks vision, hearing, smell, taste, and balance senses. These senses are concentrated in the head, which, in four-legged and swimming animals, is first to encounter stimuli during movement. The brain has an elaborate structure for processing sensory information and coordinating it with bodily movement.
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 107 · Location 2751
The white-matter axon tracts carry information up and down the spinal cord to other segments and the brain.
Bookmark – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 107 · Location 2753
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 107 · Location 2755
In the center of the gray area is a canal that contains cerebrospinal (brain and spine) fluid. The fluid is continuous with the brain.
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 108 · Location 2759
Because of the continuity between the spinal and brain cerebrospinal fluid, anesthetics can be injected below the cauda equina between L3 and L5 into the spinal cord and will, through circulation of the fluid, reach the brain.
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 110 · Location 2829
You can think of walking as a process of falling forward and catching yourself again and again. In the falling forward phase, you override your balance reflexes until the point where you swing a leg forward.
Highlight(blue) – Spying on the Spinal Cord > Page 110 · Location 2835
The spinal cord neuronal circuits that produce these rhythmic patterns of neural activity are called central pattern generators (CPGs).
Highlight(blue) – Correcting Errors: The Cerebellum > Page 114 · Location 2921
The cerebellum (Latin for “little brain”) is a part of the brain that plays an important role in motor coordination, precision, and timing.
Highlight(blue) – Correcting Errors: The Cerebellum > Page 115 · Location 2935
Cerebellar lesions result in decreased muscle tone, clumsy and abnormal movements, and loss of balance.
Bookmark – The Brainstem: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain > Page 125 · Location 3132
Highlight(blue) – The Brainstem: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain > Page 127 · Location 3173
decussation of the pyramids.
Highlight(blue) – The Brainstem: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain > Page 129 · Location 3217
substantia nigra
Highlight(blue) – Controlling Your Motives: The Limbic System > Page 136 · Location 3343
The hippocampus is an association engine for memory.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling Your Motives: The Limbic System > Page 136 · Location 3351
With practice, and often during sleep, the hippocampus reciprocally fires back at the neocortex cells that generated the long-term potentiation, and produces a long-term memory by enabling the cells in the neocortex to form their own mutually excitatory memory circuit that can be activated by future input, independent of the hippocampus.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling Your Motives: The Limbic System > Page 137 · Location 3369
The famous clinical case of the patient H.M. shows the importance of the hippocampus in learning.
Highlight(blue) – Regulating the Autonomic Nervous System: The Hypothalamus > Page 138 · Location 3402
One theory is that synapses that are activated during waking activities are pared back (in a process known as normalization) so that the brain is ready for renewed synapse growth during learning.
Highlight(blue) – Regulating the Autonomic Nervous System: The Hypothalamus > Page 139 · Location 3412
REM sleep has been shown to be important for consolidating learning. During REM sleep, what has been learned during the day and held in short-term memory is transferred to long-term memory.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 8: Generating Behavior: Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, Motor Cortex, and Frontal Cortex > Page 145 · Location 3559
The important brain areas for decisions about doing things include the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal lobes, all of which I discuss in this chapter.
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 146 · Location 3568
and the substantia nigra, which are actually in the midbrain.
Bookmark – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 146 · Location 3573
Bookmark – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 146 · Location 3573
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 146 · Location 3573
Coronal brain section
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 147 · Location 3583
The striatum inhibits the globus pallidus external segment (GPe), globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). GPe inhibits the subthalamic nucleus (STN). STN excites GPe and GPi/ SNr. The output of the basal ganglia, GPi/ SNr inhibits the thalamus, which itself excites the frontal cortex. The net effect of all this is that the inputs to the thalamus that are not inhibited by the basal ganglia are the ones that activate the cortex.
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 147 · Location 3589
Although the operation of the basal ganglia and related nuclei are not well understood, it is clear that the basal ganglia are involved in the selection of behaviors. Given the current inputs and brain state, the neocortex is simultaneously activating “programs” for multiple behaviors. The job of the basal ganglia is to choose one behavior over all the others.
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia and Its Nuclei > Page 148 · Location 3606
Both the direct and indirect pathways are modulated by the SNc, which uses the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine release by the SNc amplifies activity in the direct pathway, increasing cortical activation of movement. Dopamine released by the SNc also reduces the effect of indirect pathway inhibition. The reduction of dopamine release in the case of Parkinson’s disease causes people to lose their ability to initiate movement, because of both lowered activity of the direct pathway and reduced inhibition of the inhibitory indirect pathway.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling Muscles: The Primary Motor Cortex > Page 148 · Location 3611
Many neurons in the motor cortex send their axons down the spinal cord and synapse on alpha motor neurons (the motor neurons that innervate muscle fibers; refer to Chapter 5) in a direct control pathway. This direct pathway allows fine, conscious control of muscles, particularly in the hands and fingers.
Bookmark – Controlling Muscles: The Primary Motor Cortex > Page 149 · Location 3617
Highlight(blue) – Controlling Muscles: The Primary Motor Cortex > Page 149 · Location 3626
The primary motor cortex contains a distorted map of the body’s muscles called a homunculus.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating Muscle Groups: Central Control > Page 150 · Location 3645
Although the spinal cord is pretty good at coordinating ordinary movement, evolution has not yet programmed your body to dance the foxtrot, play hopscotch, or swim.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating Muscle Groups: Central Control > Page 150 · Location 3650
abstract representations of your goals exist in prefrontal cortex, the most anterior part of the frontal lobe.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating Muscle Groups: Central Control > Page 151 · Location 3667
 The SMA is activated even if you just imagine doing something like moving your arms and legs, without actually doing it.
Highlight(blue) – The Thalamus: Gateway to the Neocortex > Page 153 · Location 3717
Because of this appearance, area 17 is called striate (for striped) cortex.
Highlight(blue) – The Thalamus: Gateway to the Neocortex > Page 154 · Location 3739
 Some taste information is also projected to the orbitofrontal cortex where, combined with smell information, it gives rise to the finer senses of food flavor. Tell that to your foodie friends at their next dinner party!
Highlight(blue) – The Thalamus: Gateway to the Neocortex > Page 155 · Location 3774
Neurons in the reticular areas are mostly GABAergic (use the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA),
Highlight(blue) – Focusing on Goals with the Prefrontal Cortex > Page 156 · Location 3802
prefrontal cortex. When this brain area is damaged, behavior becomes stimulus driven, not dependent on internal goals.
Highlight(blue) – Focusing on Goals with the Prefrontal Cortex > Page 157 · Location 3811
Damage to the orbitofrontal-
Highlight(blue) – Focusing on Goals with the Prefrontal Cortex > Page 157 · Location 3811
amygdala system can result in sociopathic behavior in which the person is unable to feel empathy.
Highlight(blue) – Focusing on Goals with the Prefrontal Cortex > Page 157 · Location 3820
The ventral ACC is involved in processing emotional stimuli.
Highlight(blue) – Focusing on Goals with the Prefrontal Cortex > Page 157 · Location 3821
One of the most fascinating findings in neurobiology in the last two decades has been the repeated demonstration of activation of the ACC while performing difficult or confusing tasks.
Bookmark – Chapter 9: Topping It Off: The Neocortex > Page 159 · Location 3863
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Neocortex and Its Lobes > Page 161 · Location 3891
fusiform face area that processes faces and other complex visual stimuli.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Neocortex and Its Lobes > Page 165 · Location 3966
Using a single circuit for all sensory and motor neural computation is one of the most remarkable traits of mammals. Many neurobiologists believe that it’s the key to mammals’ success and the ultimate generator of human intelligence and consciousness. How
Highlight(blue) – Getting to the Brain You Have Today: The Neocortex versus Your Reptilian Brain > Page 167 · Location 4012
ependymal cells
Highlight(blue) – Making Decisions: The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex > Page 171 · Location 4088
So, a teenage driver is someone controlling a car without a fully developed frontal lobe.
Highlight(blue) – Seeing Both Sides: The Left and Right Hemispheres > Page 178 · Location 4242
An area in the right medial temporal lobe called the fusiform face area is crucial for recognizing faces.
Note – Seeing Both Sides: The Left and Right Hemispheres > Page 178 · Location 4250
Than
Part III: Perceiving the World, Thinking, Learning, and Remembering
Bookmark – Chapter 11: Feeling, Smelling, and Tasting > Page 221 · Location 5182
Highlight(blue) – Implicit (Non-Declarative) Memory > Page 237 · Location 5527
Priming involves long-term memory not because the effect of a subliminally flashed image (the prime) reliably lasts for a lifetime, but because the effect of a prime activates the long-term memory system, including our world knowledge semantics. This semantic system is sometimes referred to as the perceptual representation system.
Highlight(blue) – Forgetting It: Amnesia and Other Memory Loss > Page 249 · Location 5807
retrograde
Highlight(blue) – Forgetting It: Amnesia and Other Memory Loss > Page 249 · Location 5807
anterograde
Highlight(blue) – Forgetting It: Amnesia and Other Memory Loss > Page 251 · Location 5846
Death is usually caused by the disruption of body function regulation carried out by subcortical brain areas.
Highlight(blue) – Improving Your Learning > Page 251 · Location 5853
Deep learning is the linkage of new information to multiple levels of one’s already-existing semantic network.
Highlight(blue) – Improving Your Learning > Page 252 · Location 5866
However, if you practice learning at multiple times, in multiple contexts, learning will be deeper and you’ll be more likely to recall what you’ve learned.
Note – Improving Your Learning > Page 252 · Location 5871
Memory palace
Highlight(blue) – Improving Your Learning > Page 252 · Location 5877
The hippocampus probably originally evolved primarily for learning in spatial navigation, and its role in episodic memory evolved later from that.
Bookmark – Chapter 13: The Frontal Lobes and Executive Brain > Page 253 · Location 5879
Highlight(blue) – Reflexes versus Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 254 · Location 5907
 The crucial difference between insect and mammalian social groups is that insect social groups are composed of a few castes. An insect’s behavior is almost completely specified by a few types of responses to stimuli, as a function of its caste. But mammalian social groups consist of individuals, each of which has a specific identity and social rank.
Highlight(blue) – Reflexes versus Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 255 · Location 5924
Our large contingency-representing brains also produced bluffing, lying, deceit, war, altruism, and all-encompassing spiritual explanations for reality.
Highlight(blue) – Reflexes versus Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 255 · Location 5931
For example, an ancient evolutionary hack is to use the reflex of stepping when falling forward to generate walking.
Highlight(blue) – Reflexes versus Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 255 · Location 5936
Instead, mammals co-opted the lower, yet competent systems they inherited by controlling them at a higher level, based on more complex contingencies and learning.
Highlight(blue) – Deciding How to Do It: The Frontal Lobes and Action Execution > Page 256 · Location 5967
One way to think about limbic system control of behavior is to think about the limbic system as a device for switching states. Most animals have a finite number of goal states, such as seeking water, food, a mate, or shelter. The limbic system receives input from the body’s homeostatic mechanisms, and, with limited sensory input dependency, selects the highest priority from a set of evolutionarily programmed behaviors, such as seeking a water hole or a mate.
Note – Deciding How to Do It: The Frontal Lobes and Action Execution > Page 257 · Location 5975
The animal remembers or the animals remmber
Highlight(blue) – Deciding How to Do It: The Frontal Lobes and Action Execution > Page 257 · Location 5993
Athletic coaches know that imagining hitting a tennis forehand activates the premotor sequence for doing so, and can improve a player’s skill, even though the actual output to the muscles is suppressed.
Highlight(blue) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 258 · Location 6005
Parkinson’s disease, which is associated with loss of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.
Highlight(blue) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 258 · Location 6006
Parkinson’s patients can certainly formulate abstract motor plans, but they have trouble initiating and executing them.
Highlight(yellow) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 258 · Location 6007
This suggests that the instantiation of the motor sequence conceived in the frontal lobes still depends on subcortical structures to initiate, implement, and provide feedback control to deal with errors.
Highlight(pink) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 258 · Location 6012
The overall output of the basal ganglia inhibits all the motor sequences except the one selected via its release from inhibition.
Highlight(orange) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 259 · Location 6019
Patterning and oscillating
Highlight(blue) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 259 · Location 6021
Different frequency bands have been given different names, such as beta for 15 Hz to 30 Hz and theta for 3 Hz to 10 Hz. These rhythms are important in the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, with abnormally large, static, synchronized rhythms associated with Parkinson’s disease limb tremor. Medications that release dopamine reduce these beta oscillations and increase oscillations above 60 Hertz (high-gamma band). Activity in the subthalamic nucleus, a frequent target of electrical stimulation to relieve Parkinson’s symptoms, is important for the preparation of voluntary movements. Synchronization of subthalamic nucleus activity in the beta band is associated with movement initiation. However, the static, beta frequency oscillations in the basal ganglia in Parkinson’s disease patients interfere with the ability to initiate and execute selected movements, causing the akinesia (loss of voluntary movement) and bradykinesia (slow movement) of Parkinson’s disease.
Highlight(blue) – Initiating Action in the Basal Ganglia > Page 259 · Location 6031
striatum (the input layer of the basal ganglia, consisting of the caudate and putamen).
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 259 · Location 6036
(SMA)
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 259 · Location 6036
(PMC;
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 260 · Location 6053
behavioral repertoires,
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 260 · Location 6057
The SMA controls movements and movement sequences that are generated internally, rather than triggered by sensory events.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 261 · Location 6072
chunking.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 261 · Location 6080
Practice can be effective even if the activity is only imagined.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 261 · Location 6080
motor imagery,
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 262 · Location 6089
procedural memory.
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 262 · Location 6099
Motor learning in the cerebellum is mediated primarily by long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells. Climbing fibers provide the teaching signal that induces synaptic modification in parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. Climbing fiber activity represents an error signal. Purkinje cells have two different types of action
Highlight(blue) – Coordinating through the Supplementary and Premotor Cortices > Page 263 · Location 6111
Whereas feedback inhibition, such as in spinal cord reflexes, tends to maintain a limb in a particular position, feedforward inhibition is used to program actions such as slowing down a limb before it reaches the target,
Highlight(blue) – Mirroring Others: Mirror Neurons > Page 264 · Location 6131
Understand the actions and intentions of others:
Highlight(blue) – Mirroring Others: Mirror Neurons > Page 264 · Location 6132
This is consistent with suggestions that autism may involve some problem with the mirror neuron system.
Highlight(blue) – Mirroring Others: Mirror Neurons > Page 264 · Location 6144
theory of mind.
Highlight(blue) – Mirroring Others: Mirror Neurons > Page 264 · Location 6147
Human brain areas homologous to those where mirror neurons have been found in monkeys are located in the inferior frontal cortex, close to Broca’s area, a main language region of the brain. When people gesture to each other, as in the game of charades, fMRI activity increases in brain areas of human observers, consistent with being driven by mirror neurons.
Bookmark – Adapting Our Brains for Language > Page 266 · Location 6177
Bookmark – Adapting Our Brains for Language > Page 267 · Location 6197
Highlight(blue) – Adapting Our Brains for Language > Page 267 · Location 6208
The 3-to 5-millimeter layer of gray matter is where the cell bodies and dendrites of the neurons do most of the processing.
Highlight(blue) – Following Thought through Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 269 · Location 6263
thalamus
Bookmark – Following Thought through Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 270 · Location 6276
Highlight(blue) – Following Thought through Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 272 · Location 6305
Correlated firing is a major mechanism of attention. It can integrate and select neural activity across the entire brain. Considerable evidence exists that correlated firing underlies all brain activity we’re conscious of.
Bookmark – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 272 · Location 6317
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 273 · Location 6331
arithmetic and algebra:
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 274 · Location 6355
Wernicke’s aphasia.
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 274 · Location 6358
fluent aphasia).
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 275 · Location 6366
The ability to recognize faces, for example, is highly dependent on the fusiform face area, which is in the right medial temporal lobe.
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 275 · Location 6369
hemi-neglect,
Highlight(blue) – Speaking Your Mind: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 276 · Location 6391
externally (through verbal language) and internally (by thinking). Consciousness is a process, not a place.
Highlight(blue) – Defining Intelligence > Page 276 · Location 6405
Spearman’s g factor (IQ)
Bookmark – Defining Intelligence > Page 277 · Location 6414
Highlight(blue) – Defining Intelligence > Page 277 · Location 6421
Meta-intelligence is an executive function that refers to self-reflective capabilities, knowing one’s own strengths and weaknesses, and being able to predict
Highlight(blue) – Defining Intelligence > Page 277 · Location 6432
Much of what IQ researchers mean by meta-cognition is embodied in the common idea of wisdom.
Highlight(blue) – Defining Intelligence > Page 278 · Location 6448
Processing speed
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 279 · Location 6457
Some people think of emotions as the opposite of reason. But emotions are a useful and necessary part of cognition. Emotions not only mediate our instinctual behaviors, but also allow us to learn and adapt important new behaviors that are not rules-based.
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 279 · Location 6465
Anger Disgust Fear
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 279 · Location 6467
Happiness Sadness Surprise
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 279 · Location 6470
In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that emotions serve a communication purpose in humans that helps us to survive and is, thus, selected for. This idea implies that emotions should have universal cross-cultural expression. It also implies that emotions are connected to basic needs that are necessary for survival.
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 280 · Location 6490
However, people can obviously control emotional expressions—that’s how professional actors make their living!
Highlight(blue) – Emotional Intelligence > Page 281 · Location 6517
The job of the orbitofrontal cortex, then, is to override the amygdala’s activation of the autonomic fight-or-flight response.
Part IV: Developmental, Neurological, and Mental Disorders and Treatments
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 287 · Location 6610
degeneracy.
Highlight(yellow) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 288 · Location 6640
(exons)
Highlight(yellow) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 288 · Location 6640
(introns).
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 289 · Location 6657
When the neurons have reached their final positions, they extend axons and dendrites, which allow them to communicate with other neurons via synapses.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 289 · Location 6659
Before an embryo’s nervous system is formed, cells at the dorsal and ventral poles of the embryo and at other key locations release chemical messengers that establish gradients across the embryo.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 289 · Location 6666
Neural migration is controlled by glial cells and trophic factors.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Differentiating after Conception > Page 292 · Location 6714
meninges, which consist of three layers:
Highlight(blue) – Polarizing the Brain: Ganglia versus Brains > Page 293 · Location 6736
basic structure we see in worms—the simplest bilaterian animals of today:
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 295 · Location 6787
Evidence suggests that each radial glial cell, and the precursor neurons that migrate along it, form a fundamental unit of cortical organization called the minicolumn.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 296 · Location 6799
you transplant precursor cells from a donor to a recipient animal at a different developmental stage, the donor cells go to the layer they would have migrated to in the donor, not the layer to which other cells are migrating in the recipient.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 297 · Location 6814
Pyramidal cells typically have a single axon that releases glutamate at its terminal. Pyramidal cells are the primary output units of the neocortex.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 297 · Location 6826
(SFA),
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 299 · Location 6863
 Excitatory pyramidal neurons constitute about 80 percent of neocortical neurons, while inhibitory interneurons account for the remaining 20 percent.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 300 · Location 6895
Sensory projections to the neocortex often are organized as maps,
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 302 · Location 6927
Hebb’s law
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 302 · Location 6933
“When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A’s efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased.”
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 302 · Location 6937
Hebb’s law, as it became known, hypothesized that synaptic modification occurs according to correlated activity in the pre-and post-synaptic elements of synapses.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 302 · Location 6947
During development of the visual system—before the retina even has photoreceptors—waves of organized self-induced spontaneous firing move across the retina constantly to produce a position-dependent internally generated correlated firing. This process repeats itself at every level of the nervous system, through many stages of neocortical processing.
Highlight(blue) – Layering the Neocortex > Page 303 · Location 6960
teratogen.
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 303 · Location 6969
The developing nervous system is building itself by chemical gradients and affinities, and it’s fragile.
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 304 · Location 6982
knockout
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 304 · Location 6991
Parkinson’s
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 304 · Location 6994
autosomal recessive,
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 304 · Location 6995
autosomal dominant
Bookmark – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 306 · Location 7019
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 306 · Location 7035
telomeres
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 307 · Location 7047
Parkinson’s
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 307 · Location 7059
Parkinson’s disease is associated with the death of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (a basal ganglia nucleus). The death of these cells interferes with a person’s ability to make voluntary movements or voluntary corrections as he walks, such as stepping over an obstacle.
Highlight(blue) – Developmental Neural Disorders > Page 308 · Location 7083
glioma,
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 16: Movement Disorders > Page 309 · Location 7102
Parkinson’s
Highlight(blue) – Motor Neuron Damage > Page 315 · Location 7234
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease)
Bookmark – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 317 · Location 7282
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 317 · Location 7286
Parkinson’s disease
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7291
age 50.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7293
Although Parkinson’ disease isn’t usually associated with marked cognitive impairment in early stages, it can cause mood problems including depression, apathy, anxiety, and poor impulse control.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7295
Some of these symptoms may be related to treatments that attempt to increase dopamine levels rather than primarily from the disease itself.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7296
At the cellular level, Parkinson’s is characterized by inclusions called Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.
Highlight(yellow) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7301
Dopamine released by neurons in the substantia nigra amplifies activity in the basal ganglia direct pathway from the striatum that disinhibits the thalamic projection to the motor cortex (refer to Chapter 8). This increases activation of the motor pathway that will be executed. This dopamine release also reduces the effect of inhibition through an indirect pathway. The reduction of dopamine release in Parkinson’s disease reduces the ability to initiate movement via both direct and indirect pathways via a reduction of the drive to the motor thalamus that gates the cortical excitatory projections to the corticospinal tract and brainstem.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7307
while cigarette smoking is associated with a reduced risk for unknown reasons.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7310
However, as the disease progresses, dopaminergic neurons are depleted so that supplying dopamine precursors is no longer effective.
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 318 · Location 7311
produces a complication called dyskinesia,
Highlight(blue) – Basal Ganglia and Other Diseases > Page 319 · Location 7316
chorea.
Highlight(blue) – Strokes and Injuries > Page 323 · Location 7419
A persistent mystery about spinal cord and other central nervous system injuries is the fact that the peripheral nervous system, but not the central nervous system, in mammals, regenerates axon pathways after transection. Also, cold-blooded vertebrates like fish can regenerate even central nervous system tracts
Highlight(blue) – Strokes and Injuries > Page 323 · Location 7421
like the optic nerve. One idea has to do with the fact that peripheral nervous system axons are wrapped by Schwann cells, whereas central axons are wrapped by oligodendrocytes.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 331 · Location 7587
Monoamines are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain. The monoamine transmitter group includes serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 331 · Location 7592
low dopamine levels lead to lowered attention, motivation, and anhedonia (reduced feelings of pleasure and reward).
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 332 · Location 7615
Tianeptine increases the concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the brain area important for reward and motivation. It also modulates the D2 and
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 333 · Location 7623
These neurotransmitters have completely different functions in different brain areas, but many pharmacological treatments reduce or elevate their concentrations everywhere.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 335 · Location 7672
The use of DBS for depression followed a much more common use of DBS in the subthalamic nucleus for people with Parkinson’s disease.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 335 · Location 7673
DBS stimulation has produced immediate symptom relief in thousands of such Parkinson’s patients without the side effects that occur with pharmacological therapies.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 336 · Location 7697
Brain scans of schizophrenic people show activity in their auditory cortex during such auditory hallucinations. This suggests that an internal source in the brain is generating activity in auditory areas that the schizophrenic person cannot distinguish from something she actually hears.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 337 · Location 7717
 Nicotine, as from cigarettes, is a nicotinic agonist, and cigarette smoking, as a form of self-medication, is prevalent among people with schizophrenia. Research suggests a specific defect in the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the major molecular cause of schizophrenia.
Highlight(blue) – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 337 · Location 7733
Typical symptoms of OCD include washing excessively (particularly hand washing), repeatedly checking for something undone or missing, and performing everyday activities—such as dining or washing—in a ritualistic way. OCD is also associated with traits such as hoarding, preoccupation with sexual or religious thoughts, and irrational aversions, such as extreme fear of germs.
Bookmark – Mixing Genetic and Developmental Components > Page 337 · Location 7739
Highlight(blue) – Eating and Drinking for Brain Function > Page 340 · Location 7788
Other dopamine agents include modafinil, L-phenylalanine L-tyrosine, biopterin, and pyridoxal-phosphate.
Highlight(blue) – Eating and Drinking for Brain Function > Page 340 · Location 7804
Caffeine: Commonly
Highlight(blue) – Eating and Drinking for Brain Function > Page 340 · Location 7805
and alertness. It has a marginal paradoxical protective effect against Parkinson’s disease, for unknown reasons.
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 343 · Location 7864
Parkinson’s disease the basal ganglia were the original target areas. The assumption
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 343 · Location 7865
was that artificial stimulation could restore subnormal neural activity from dopamine
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 343 · Location 7869
how it works, the results of DBS in many patients have been dramatic. Parkinson’s patients who exhibit the typical stooped posture and shuffling gate with the stimulator turned off are able
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 343 · Location 7870
walk and engage in sports almost immediately when the current pulses are turned on.
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 343 · Location 7873
DBS treatments
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 344 · Location 7886
phosphenes
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 345 · Location 7906
oscillations
Highlight(blue) – Fixing the Brain with Surgery, Electricity, and Magnetism > Page 345 · Location 7909
endorphins (internal pain reduction neurotransmitters)
Highlight(blue) – Repairing Brain Damage > Page 346 · Location 7950
Stem cells that will release dopamine have been injected into the substantia nigra of Parkinson’s patients with mixed success.
Part V: The Part of Tens
Bookmark – The Reticular Formation in the Brainstem > Page 358 · Location 8158
Highlight(blue) – The Spinal Reflex > Page 358 · Location 8174
Overriding reflexes is essential to locomotion, which consists of deliberately falling forward (unbalancing) and catching yourself by extending one, then the other leg in a repeated cycle.
Highlight(blue) – Cerebellar Modulation of Motion Sequences > Page 359 · Location 8191
neural circuitry detects errors between what is “programmed” by the frontal lobes for a particular movement and what is actually executed, which depends on variables like loads and uneven ground while walking. It uses error computation to achieve correct sequences in motor behavior based on practice.
Highlight(blue) – Cerebellar Modulation of Motion Sequences > Page 360 · Location 8203
If you plan to rearrange the furniture in your house, the cerebellum is activated during this planning.
Highlight(blue) – The Spinal Pattern Generator > Page 361 · Location 8235
central pattern generators (CPGs).
Highlight(blue) – The Basal Ganglia Thalamus Loop > Page 363 · Location 8268
The basal ganglia (refer to Chapter 9) are the primary controllers of behavior, using the neocortex to generate alternative motor plans and the cerebellum to carry them out. The basal ganglia receive inputs via the outer nuclei (striatum—caudate and putamen), which project to inner nuclei, mainly the globus pallidus. The output of the basal ganglia is chiefly from these inner nuclei to the thalamus, and it’s primarily inhibitory to areas of the frontal lobe that generate commands for controlling motor behavior. The substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei perform a crucial modulatory role in this system.
Highlight(blue) – Optogenetics: Controlling Neurons with Light > Page 365 · Location 8313
Optogenetics (refer to Chapter 4) controls neural activity by activating light-sensitive channels in neural membranes. These light-sensitive channels typically come from microbes that have evolved them to control some behavior, such as moving toward or away from light.
Highlight(blue) – Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation > Page 366 · Location 8324
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two types of brain stimulation.
Highlight(blue) – Deep Brain Stimulation > Page 369 · Location 8391
Deep brain stimulation was first tried for Parkinson’s disease according to the idea that if the output of a single, small brain nucleus (the substantia nigra) was deficient, perhaps just elevating its output artificially with current pulses that increased neural firing would compensate for its low output. This turned out to work. The results of deep brain stimulation have led to new ideas about how the basal ganglia system works.
Highlight(blue) – Fluorescence and Confocal Microscopy > Page 370 · Location 8411
microscopy, which is also used in non-living sections, can image living cells in brain slices or even
Highlight(blue) – Tissue Culture and Brain Slices > Page 372 · Location 8458
the locus of a genetic mutation behind a neural dysfunction does not automatically translate into a treatment regime because the function of the protein encoded may be unknown and embedded in a complex regulatory system whose operation is poorly known.
Index
Bookmark – Page 373 · Location 8469
Bookmark – Page 385 · Location 9506

Notes to Neuroscience For Dummies

Neuroscience For Dummies
Amthor, Frank
Citation (Chicago Style): Amthor, Frank. Neuroscience For Dummies. Wiley, 2023. Kindle edition.

Copyright
Highlight(blue) – Page iv · Location 8
Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, www.wiley.com Copyright © 2023 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Part 1: Introducing the Nervous System
Bookmark – Understanding the Evolution of the Nervous System > Page 9 · Location 646
Highlight(blue) – Understanding the Evolution of the Nervous System > Page 10 · Location 668
The human brain consumes about 20 percent of the body’s metabolism despite being only about 5 percent of body weight.
Highlight(blue) – Revolutionizing the Future: Advancements in Various Fields > Page 21 · Location 936
Humans are now beginning to augment ourselves.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 28 · Location 1052
Most of the volume of the brain is axonal wiring, not cells.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 28 · Location 1063
the corpus callosum, which contains 200 million fibers.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 30 · Location 1093
This “motor map” (called a homunculus)
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 31 · Location 1123
Primates, on the other hand, have complex male and female hierarchies and may hatch plots against each other that span years of planning.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 32 · Location 1137
The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors) relay through the thalamus to the gyrus just posterior to the central fissure, where a map of the skin exists.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 32 · Location 1140
The skin homunculus map closely resembles the primary motor cortex map.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 32 · Location 1153
The fact that the visual system gets an entire lobe for processing emphasizes the importance of high visual acuity and processing among our senses.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 34 · Location 1172
The root of the word thalamus comes from a Greek word (tholos) related to the entrance room to a building, so you can think of the thalamus as the gateway to the cortex.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 34 · Location 1175
So, what does the thalamus do, exactly? It functions like a command center that controls what information goes between different parts of the neocortex and the rest of the brain.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 34 · Location 1189
Memory modifies behavior in such animals via what we think of as emotions.
Bookmark – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 35 · Location 1200
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 35 · Location 1205
one brain structure within this system, the hippocampus, is now known to have a crucial function in the creation of memory.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 35 · Location 1212
primarily involved with emotional processing, the amygdala.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 36 · Location 1230
the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia consist of five major nuclei: the caudate, putamen, globus palladus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 37 · Location 1245
Parkinson’s disease, which is caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in this nucleus. Without these neurons, initiating voluntary movement or changing an ongoing movement sequence becomes difficult.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 38 · Location 1262
The major visual area in the midbrain is the superior colliculus, which controls eye movements called saccades.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 38 · Location 1264
(called the tectum in frogs and other non-mammals)
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 38 · Location 1281
The reticular formation is not so much a defined structure as it is a continuous network that extends through and interacts with numerous brain areas.
Highlight(blue) – Looking Inside the Skull: The Brain and Its Parts > Page 39 · Location 1293
trigeminal cranial nerve V.
Bookmark – How We Know What We Know about Neural Activity > Page 48 · Location 1491
Bookmark – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 51 · Location 1536
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 52 · Location 1554
cytoplasm
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 53 · Location 1580
dendrites receive inputs
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 53 · Location 1581
axon sends the output of the cell to other cells.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 54 · Location 1596
learning. Learning occurs when experiences modify the strength and identity of the interconnections between neurons and thus create memory.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 54 · Location 1603
electrical pulses, called spikes,
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 54 · Location 1610
synaptic cleft.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 55 · Location 1627
Motor neurons output their neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) onto muscle cells that contract when receptors in the muscle cells receive it. The control of voluntary striated muscle generally occurs after the brain has done a
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 55 · Location 1636
Postsynaptic receptor channels that are activated by neurotransmitters released by a presynaptic neuron are generally referred to as ligand-gated ion channels.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 57 · Location 1659
neurotransmitter molecules.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 57 · Location 1664
All voluntary muscle contractions are caused by the release of acetylcholine by motor neurons onto muscle cells.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 57 · Location 1667
fast inhibitory neurotransmitters gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 57 · Location 1670
Slow neuromodulators that include both excitatory and inhibitory types: Most of the fast neurotransmitters are amino acids (other than acetylcholine). Modulating neurotransmitters include biogenic amines, such as the catecholamines (dopamine,
Bookmark – Chapter 3: Understanding How Neurons Work > Page 58 · Location 1680
Highlight(blue) – How Shocking! Neurons as Electrical Signaling Devices > Page 58 · Location 1689
cation is positively charged (attracted to a negative cathode); an anion is negatively charged (attracted to a positive anode).
Bookmark – How Shocking! Neurons as Electrical Signaling Devices > Page 58 · Location 1691
Highlight(blue) – Non-neuronal Cells: Glial Cells > Page 65 · Location 1821
astrocyte
Highlight(blue) – Non-neuronal Cells: Glial Cells > Page 65 · Location 1823
cancer treatment protocols effectively involve using toxic chemicals and radiation to wipe out the vast majority of dividing cancer cells, hoping the immune system can mop up the last few percent.
Part 2: Translating the Internal and External Worlds through Your Senses
Bookmark – How Do You Feel? The Lowdown on the Skin and Its Sensory Neurons > Page 74 · Location 1994
Highlight(blue) – Skin Receptors, Local Spinal Circuits, and Projections to the Brain > Page 81 · Location 2125
because some neural projections from the face invade the cortical area once stimulated by the limb and cause sensations to be perceived as being located in the limb, even when the limb is gone. Receptor densities
Highlight(blue) – Understanding the Complex Aspects of Pain > Page 82 · Location 2159
endorphins (a term which is an abbreviation of endogenous morphines).
Highlight(blue) – Understanding the Complex Aspects of Pain > Page 83 · Location 2170
it turns out that the drug naloxone not only reduces the effects of opioids, such as heroin, but it also reduces the placebo effect. What this means is that the placebo effect isn’t just psychological; it actually has a physiological component, involving the cognitive stimulation, from belief, of the body’s internal endorphin production that objectively and measurably reduces pain by binding the endorphin receptors.
Highlight(blue) – The Eyes Have It: A Quick Glance at Your Eyes > Page 89 · Location 2272
(red, green, and blue).
Highlight(blue) – From the Eyes to the Vision Centers of the Brain > Page 103 · Location 2567
apraxis, the inability to skillfully execute tasks requiring visual guidance.
Highlight(blue) – Impaired Vision and Visual Illusions > Page 106 · Location 2634
Unlike the preceding retinopathies, glaucoma involves a primary death of retinal ganglion cells, most commonly due to inherited excessive pressure within the eye. One glaucoma subtype, closed-angle glaucoma, is treatable with laser surgery. The other form, open-angle glaucoma, can often be controlled with medication.
Highlight(blue) – Impaired Vision and Visual Illusions > Page 106 · Location 2642
Amblyopia,
Highlight(blue) – The Ear: Capturing and Decoding Sound Waves > Page 113 · Location 2776
they also are apparently derived evolutionarily from motor type cilia, such as used by some single-celled organisms to move.
Highlight(blue) – Making Sense of Sounds: Central Auditory Projections > Page 118 · Location 2873
of attended auditory input
Highlight(blue) – Making Sense of Sounds: Central Auditory Projections > Page 118 · Location 2873
deliberately try to hear—is mediated in multiple brain areas that
Highlight(blue) – Making Sense of Sounds: Central Auditory Projections > Page 121 · Location 2925
22 results in an inability to process prosody in language—the changes in tonality and rhythm—that conveys meaning. Patients with this damage, for example, have trouble distinguishing sarcastic versus questioning versus other tones of voice, and in particular, don’t “get” jokes and other forms of humor.
Highlight(blue) – Making Sense of Sounds: Central Auditory Projections > Page 121 · Location 2929
However, its processing relies more on the right than the left side of the brain, indicated by the fact that most people recognize melodies better with their left ear (right brain).
Highlight(blue) – I Can’t Hear You: Deafness and Tinnitus > Page 124 · Location 2999
age-related decline in high frequency sensitivity (presbycusis, which occurs in almost everyone, particularly males),
Bookmark – Chapter 7: Odors and Taste > Page 127 · Location 3029
Highlight(blue) – What’s That Smell? > Page 132 · Location 3137
This pathway is concerned with memory associations of very universal smells such as something rotting, rather than sophisticated smells such as hazelnut coffee and dark chocolate, which require higher order cortical processing to establish their identity prior to being stored in memory.
Highlight(blue) – Having Good Taste > Page 137 · Location 3236
trigeminal
Highlight(blue) – Lacking Taste and Smelling Badly > Page 142 · Location 3347
alliesthesia (“ changed taste”), and it’s a brain mechanism that indicates you’re getting full. The mechanism for
Part 3: Moving Right Along: Motor Systems
Bookmark – Chapter 8: Movement Basics > Page 145 · Location 3369
Highlight(blue) – Identifying Types of Movement > Page 147 · Location 3420
Proprioception
Highlight(blue) – Identifying Types of Movement > Page 147 · Location 3420
kinesthesis
Highlight(blue) – Identifying Types of Movement > Page 148 · Location 3446
Some researchers have argued that language itself, the ultimate separator of humans from animals, evolved literally hand in hand with manual dexterity. This argument suggests that the left side of the brain regions that enable language production also makes most of us right-handed for motion sequence production.
Highlight(blue) – Pulling the Load: Muscle Cells and Their Action Potentials > Page 153 · Location 3565
cells. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is an excitatory ionotropic receptor (refer to Chapter 3).
Highlight(blue) – Pulling the Load: Muscle Cells and Their Action Potentials > Page 154 · Location 3578
cholinesterases)
Highlight(blue) – Pulling the Load: Muscle Cells and Their Action Potentials > Page 154 · Location 3587
myosin myofilaments
Highlight(blue) – Pulling the Load: Muscle Cells and Their Action Potentials > Page 154 · Location 3590
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as an energy source. ATP is the universal energy “currency” within cells for conducting
Highlight(blue) – Muscle and Muscle Motor Neuron Disorders > Page 155 · Location 3605
Myasthenia gravis
Highlight(blue) – Muscle and Muscle Motor Neuron Disorders > Page 156 · Location 3616
Motor neuron viral diseases: Rabies and polio
Highlight(blue) – Muscle and Muscle Motor Neuron Disorders > Page 157 · Location 3639
One focus is based on the fact that the myelin wrapping around peripheral nerves is from cells called Schwann cells, but the myelin wrapping around central nervous system axons is from cells called oligodendrocytes.
Highlight(blue) – The Withdrawal Reflex: An Open-Loop Response > Page 160 · Location 3672
The beginning of the withdrawal reflex can also be described as being ballistic, in the sense that once launched, its trajectory is not controlled
Highlight(blue) – Hold Your Position! Closed-Loop Reflexes > Page 163 · Location 3744
Patients with tremor, such as Parkinson’s, have defective overshoot control systems so their limbs oscillate at what should have been the endpoint of a planned movement.
Highlight(blue) – The Modulating Reflexes: Balance and Locomotion > Page 165 · Location 3788
The basics of locomotion
Highlight(blue) – The Modulating Reflexes: Balance and Locomotion > Page 166 · Location 3813
central
Highlight(blue) – The Modulating Reflexes: Balance and Locomotion > Page 166 · Location 3813
pattern generator, which alternates the two legs and two arms with each
Highlight(blue) – Correcting Errors without Feedback: The Cerebellum > Page 167 · Location 3829
So the question is, how does repetition make us better at doing something?
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 10: Planning and Executing Actions > Page 174 · Location 3923
Does consciousness emerge from just having a large enough brain? Or is consciousness not real, not a cause of anything, but a result, an illusion that goes along for the ride with complex brain activity, what some philosophers call an epiphenomenon? This chapter considers some of the more relevant data.
Highlight(blue) – Making the Move from Reflexes to Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 175 · Location 3955
an orderly map, referred to as the motor homunculus (this is very similar to the sensory homunculus in the primary somatosensory area;
Highlight(blue) – Making the Move from Reflexes to Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 178 · Location 4015
items that humans can hold in memory (which memory researchers call chunks)
Highlight(blue) – Making the Move from Reflexes to Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 178 · Location 4028
Selection: How the basal ganglia function as a circuit is one of the least understood areas of system neuroscience, despite their importance in diseases such as Parkinson’s
Highlight(blue) – Making the Move from Reflexes to Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 179 · Location 4046
the basal ganglia structures called the caudate and putamen, which together are referred to as the striatum. The striatum projects to three interconnected nuclei within the core of the basal ganglia, called the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (in the midbrain). The output of these three nuclei, particularly the globus pallidus, inhibits motor areas through the thalamus.
Highlight(blue) – Making the Move from Reflexes to Conscious or Goal-Generated Action > Page 180 · Location 4059
our apparent multitasking is really a case of cyclic time sharing.
Highlight(blue) – Where Are the Free Will Neurons? > Page 184 · Location 4125
Here’s what the data very reliably showed: Deflections of the EEG traces occurred typically one-half second before the subjects indicated they’d decided to move their hands (this deflection is typically now called a readiness potential,
Highlight(blue) – Where Are the Free Will Neurons? > Page 185 · Location 4162
abnormalities in the frontal lobe, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex, seem to reduce a person’s capacity to make wise choices without reducing the capacity to do the mental calculation of the costs and benefits of the choices.
Highlight(blue) – Discovering New (and Strange) Neurons > Page 186 · Location 4178
Mirror neurons are visual neurons that fire not only when an animal, such as a monkey, is performing a task requiring visual feedback, but also when the monkey observes a human (or presumably another monkey) performing the same task.
Highlight(blue) – When the Wheels Come Off: Motor Disorders > Page 190 · Location 4269
L-dopa treatments eventually cease working because the cells that convert L-dopa to dopamine cease working or die.
Highlight(blue) – When the Wheels Come Off: Motor Disorders > Page 190 · Location 4271
deep brain stimulation (DBS).
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 11: Unconscious Actions with Big Implications > Page 191 · Location 4294
homeostasis, the active maintenance of various aspects of the internal state of our bodies.
Highlight(blue) – Working behind the Scenes: The Autonomic Nervous System > Page 192 · Location 4310
The autonomic nervous system is actually a dual system because it has two components, called the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, which act in opposition to each other.
Highlight(blue) – Sweet Dreams: Sleep and Circadian Rhythms > Page 200 · Location 4490
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which means “nucleus above the chiasm.” Although the activity of these cells controls the overall circadian rhythm in humans and all other vertebrates, circadian cells also exist in primitive organisms and circadian rhythms exist in single-celled entities such as algae.
Part 4: Intelligence: The Thinking Brain and Consciousness
Highlight(blue) – Defining Intelligence > Page 214 · Location 4753
learning and its result, memory.
Highlight(blue) – Intelligence about Emotions > Page 226 · Location 5008
Researchers conjecture that memory for navigation may have been the original evolutionary function of
Highlight(blue) – Intelligence about Emotions > Page 226 · Location 5009
the hippocampus, after which it became involved in other kinds of memory, including particularly episodic memory
Highlight(blue) – Intelligence about Emotions > Page 226 · Location 5023
Stroop task,
Highlight(blue) – Understanding Consciousness > Page 229 · Location 5081
(the “singularity”) should be reached around 2030,
Highlight(blue) – Understanding Consciousness > Page 229 · Location 5091
consciousness as “the remembered present.”
Highlight(blue) – Understanding Consciousness > Page 233 · Location 5174
few of us remember anything from our lives before the age of 2 is suggested to result from the profound reorganization of our brains that occurs after we learn language,
Bookmark – Chapter 13: How the Brain Processes Thoughts > Page 239 · Location 5291
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 13: How the Brain Processes Thoughts > Page 240 · Location 5303
whether it enables complex functions like language and consciousness simply because it has crossed some size threshold, or whether its structure and organization is somehow unique.
Highlight(blue) – All about the Neocortex > Page 245 · Location 5399
The small “communities” in the cortex are called minicolumns.
Highlight(blue) – All about the Neocortex > Page 245 · Location 5403
passing through six synapses or less, the six degrees of separation.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling the Content of Thought: Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 248 · Location 5475
Past stimuli have left their trace in memory not only as recallable objects and events, but also as paths in the brain through which current stimuli are processed. Stimuli received by the senses are transformed into a universal neural currency of action potentials bombarding the thalamus.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling the Content of Thought: Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 251 · Location 5540
areas is a central executive processing nucleus within the thalamus itself called the pulvinar.
Highlight(blue) – Controlling the Content of Thought: Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 252 · Location 5558
Remembering involves activation of many of the same brain structures (visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices) that processed the original sensory input, organized or activated by the hippocampus,
Highlight(blue) – Controlling the Content of Thought: Sensory Pathways and Hierarchies > Page 252 · Location 5559
and represented in the firing of working memory neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 253 · Location 5572
Beyond this basic crossed-innervation scheme, the two sides appear to have different styles of processing that are particularly evident in some high-level cognitive tasks. These include a left-side specialization for grammatical aspects of language and a right side specialization for holistic aspects of visuo-spatial processing.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 253 · Location 5587
In virtually all right-handers and about half of left-handers, language depends far more on structures in the left hemisphere than the right (the homologous areas in the right hemisphere have far weaker roles in the same functions).
Highlight(orange) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 254 · Location 5597
stylistic
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 254 · Location 5597
manners of processing by the two hemispheres: The left brain tends to be sequential and rule-based, whereas the right brain tends to do pattern matching.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 254 · Location 5601
Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 254 · Location 5611
If you heard Wernicke’s aphasics speak in a language you did not know, you might have difficulty discerning that there was anything wrong.
Highlight(blue) – Dividing and Conquering: Language, Vision, and the Brain Hemispheres > Page 255 · Location 5630
The right fusiform face area, a very anterior and medial part of the visual identity processing stream in the infero-temporal cortex, is more important for face recognition than the equivalent area on the left.
Bookmark – Where Consciousness Resides > Page 256 · Location 5641
Highlight(blue) – Where Consciousness Resides > Page 258 · Location 5666
According to this idea, humans are unique in that we have a system in the sequential, rule-based left side of the brain that constantly tries to make sense of the world by using language. This left side interpreter is constantly making up a verbal story about reality that includes salient events and the role of the person and their actions in those events.
Highlight(blue) – Where Consciousness Resides > Page 258 · Location 5696
Does a car simulate a person walking?
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 263 · Location 5772
Evolution has occurred in the mammalian brain mostly by adding the neocortex to ancestral structures. This is something like the addition of numerous microcomputers and controllers to a modern car engine.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 266 · Location 5852
Despite the fact that humans have much larger brains than many other animals, the capacity of seven short-term memory items doesn’t appear to be much greater than that of many other animals, such as crows!
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 268 · Location 5897
Lateral prefrontal damage is associated with a phenomenon called perseveration.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 269 · Location 5913
Wise people with intact frontal lobes make this change in priorities; teenagers with not yet fully developed frontal lobe myelination, and people with compromised frontal lobe function, often do not.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 270 · Location 5935
On the other hand, intuition can lead to stereotypes and rigidity in behavior.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 271 · Location 5955
The orbitofrontal cortex informs us when we contemplate socially
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 271 · Location 5955
embarrassing actions by provoking feelings of fear and embarrassment through the action of the autonomic nervous system.
Bookmark – Chapter 14: The Executive Brain > Page 271 · Location 5962
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 272 · Location 5969
practiced sequences to be executed with higher precision and speed than is possible under explicit conscious control. Because such sequences
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 272 · Location 5970
are executed faster than they can be consciously controlled, they are executed with only high level awareness of their progress, without knowledge of the motor details.
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 273 · Location 5988
(called voxels)
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 273 · Location 5995
The anterior cingulate is activated when you do things that are difficult or novel, when you make errors, or when you must overcome habitual behavior patterns. It is at the center of a supervisory control system that mediates goal selection
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 274 · Location 6022
In normal human development, the frontal lobes mature last. For example, myelination of axons is not complete in the frontal lobes until late adolescence.
Highlight(blue) – Are We There Yet? The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 274 · Location 6025
Adolescence is a developmental period notoriously characterized by high raw intelligence but poor judgment typical of inadequate frontal lobe function. One of the oft-stated goals of education is to instill enough good habits and rational thinking capabilities to get adolescents through adolescence without doing harm to themselves or others.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 15: Learning and Memory > Page 275 · Location 6045
During embryonic growth and the first years of life, the human brain develops by growing and changing its large-scale organization. Starting during early development but continuing throughout later life, nervous system activity from experience causes changes in synaptic strengths that mediate changes in behavior.
Highlight(blue) – Learning and Memory: One More Way to Adapt to the Environment > Page 276 · Location 6056
at least three kinds of adaptation to the environment are possible: evolutionary adaptation, developmental adaptation, and classical learning.
Highlight(blue) – Learning and Memory: One More Way to Adapt to the Environment > Page 277 · Location 6096
A crucial brain area for consolidating learning from short-to long-term memory is the hippocampus in the medial temporal lobe.
Highlight(blue) – Sending More or Fewer Signals: Adaptation versus Facilitation > Page 278 · Location 6103
There are two low-order mechanisms by which neural responses change: adaptation (or habituation in the case of repeated stimuli) and facilitation (sensitization in the case of repeated stimuli):
Highlight(blue) – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 284 · Location 6227
neural circuits also appear to operate like analog computers, so the brain is a mixture of both).
Highlight(blue) – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 284 · Location 6241
How does a synapse change its strength? What and where are these synapses?
Highlight(blue) – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 284 · Location 6242
What signal controls this change that is associated with learning?
Highlight(blue) – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 285 · Location 6264
glutamate. However, unlike most ligand-(neurotransmitter-binding) activated receptors, the NMDA receptor is blocked by a magnesium ion in the mouth of the pore when the neuron is at its normal resting potential with the inside about–56 millivolts with respect to the outside extracellular fluid. In this case, binding glutamate from a presynaptic terminal is not sufficient to open the NMDA ion channel. The magnesium ion is removed, however, if an adjacent non-NMDA glutamate ion channel (typically those called AMPA and kainate channels) is also activated and depolarizes the neural
Bookmark – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 287 · Location 6299
Highlight(blue) – Exploring What Happens during Learning: Changing Synapses > Page 288 · Location 6305
called long-term potentiation. (There is also long-term depression, which balances things out so that all synapses do not become stronger only.)
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 289 · Location 6322
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to locate where in the brain these memories exist and what processes they use. The hippocampus, as it turns out, is crucial for moving memory from the short-term form to the long-term.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 289 · Location 6332
Short-term memory exists in two places, the lateral prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 290 · Location 6365
coincidence detector for that thing. So seeing a green frog activates the cortical areas for green and frog, which activates the hippocampal green frog cell whose synapses get strengthened.
Highlight(pink) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 292 · Location 6392
This means you can re-create in your cortex a version of the pattern of activity that occurred when you actually experienced something.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 292 · Location 6392
When you continue to think about, or rehearse, the memory of some experience, the activity reverberates between hippocampus and cortex. If you rehearse enough (which happens during REM sleep, particularly), modifiable synapses in the cortex are changed so that the cortex itself can reproduce the neural activity associated with an experience.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 293 · Location 6397
The hippocampus is a scratchpad for maintaining rehearsal to form the long-term memory.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 293 · Location 6407
their hippocampi played back the correct maze traversal sequence by activating, in sequence,
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 293 · Location 6408
playback occurred at about seven times the actual speed that the rats ran the mazes. If the rats were prevented from having REM sleep, they did not consolidate the day’s training well and did not learn the mazes as well.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 294 · Location 6422
The name for contextual memory is episodic memory, that is, memory associated with an event or episode. General memory about facts is called semantic memory.
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 294 · Location 6433
Remember also that the projections from neocortex to hippocampus include both low (realistic, detailed) and high
Highlight(blue) – The Role of the Hippocampus in Learning and Memory > Page 294 · Location 6434
(abstract) meaning associated levels, so that the context for any memory can be quite elaborate and specific.
Highlight(blue) – Losing Your Memory: Forgetting, Amnesia, and Other Disorders > Page 295 · Location 6446
too weak (the synapses are not sufficiently strengthened)
Highlight(blue) – Losing Your Memory: Forgetting, Amnesia, and Other Disorders > Page 295 · Location 6453
scuba divers who learned a list of words underwater and then were asked to recall the terms later, both on the surface and underwater. The results? The underwater performance was better.
Highlight(blue) – Losing Your Memory: Forgetting, Amnesia, and Other Disorders > Page 295 · Location 6462
soap opera syndrome of temporary memory loss, known clinically as transient global amnesia (TGA).
Highlight(blue) – Losing Your Memory: Forgetting, Amnesia, and Other Disorders > Page 295 · Location 6464
transient ischemia,
Highlight(blue) – Getting Brainier: Improving Your Learning > Page 297 · Location 6491
Learning has a lifespan trajectory. It’s easy when you’re very young, difficult after adolescence, and very hard for most elderly. We can’t do much about the process of aging other than taking care of ourselves, but we can maintain and even increase the ability to learn by engaging in intellectually challenging activities.
Highlight(blue) – Getting Brainier: Improving Your Learning > Page 297 · Location 6502
Cognitive dysfunctions such as dyslexia and dysgraphia are not believed by most scientists to be based on any specific dysfunction in learning mechanisms. Rather, they are almost certainly the result of a dysfunction in some aspect of the central representation of the relevant sensory input that becomes evident during learning.
Highlight(blue) – Getting Brainier: Improving Your Learning > Page 297 · Location 6511
enough time for the hippocampal-cortex reverberation system to consolidate learning over several evenings of sleep.
Highlight(blue) – Getting Brainier: Improving Your Learning > Page 298 · Location 6526
Failure is a signal to change synaptic weights, while success means that some subset should be enhanced.
Highlight(blue) – Getting Brainier: Improving Your Learning > Page 298 · Location 6530
One of the functions of the dopamine system in the brain is to provide reward/ punishment feedback for adapting the brain to activities in which you are engaged.
Bookmark – Chapter 16: Developing and Modifying Brain Circuits: Plasticity > Page 299 · Location 6546
Highlight(pink) – Chapter 16: Developing and Modifying Brain Circuits: Plasticity > Page 299 · Location 6549
glial
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 16: Developing and Modifying Brain Circuits: Plasticity > Page 300 · Location 6556
genome codes for rules by which several hundred brain areas will come into existence. A few other rules specify the approximate location of these areas, about how large they are, and about what kinds of connections they will have. This constitutes a general program for development.
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 303 · Location 6635
This developmental fine tuning is called plasticity.
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 303 · Location 6640
cell type, such as a pyramidal cell. This migrating cell is called a migratory precursor cell.
Bookmark – Developing from Conception > Page 304 · Location 6652
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 304 · Location 6655
are pluripotent stem cells, meaning that they can differentiate into any cell type. As development proceeds, they become committed to being endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm cell types, then to specialized types within those divisions, and so on, until they differentiate into a final cell type and remain so for the life of the organism, never dividing again (with a few exceptions).
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 305 · Location 6676
Some researchers believe that subtle errors in laying out these standard minicolumns properly may underlie some disorders such as autism.
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 307 · Location 6696
A major question in neuroscience concerns how axons know where to go and what to connect to when they reach their target areas.
Highlight(blue) – Developing from Conception > Page 307 · Location 6700
What the genetic code really codes for is a set of cellular responses that comprise rules or procedures that cells follow when responding to their environments, which they do through the manufacture of proteins.
Highlight(blue) – Learning from Experience: Plasticity and the Development of Cortical Maps > Page 312 · Location 6819
Tests have shown that at birth, infants are already familiar with their mother’s voice from hearing it in the womb, for example. This is possible because neurons in newborns’ auditory cortices already respond better to the speech sounds of their mother in her language than to other voices in that language or to the mother speaking a different language she did not use while they were in the womb.
Highlight(blue) – Learning from Experience: Plasticity and the Development of Cortical Maps > Page 312 · Location 6831
RNA contains the sugar ribose instead of the deoxyribose in DNA. The complementary base to adenine in RNA is uracil rather than the thymine in DNA. RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded.
Highlight(blue) – Learning from Experience: Plasticity and the Development of Cortical Maps > Page 313 · Location 6852
Another process, called reverse transcription, uses RNA from a virus that has entered the cell to make DNA in the cell nucleus. Reverse transcription occurs in retroviruses such as HIV and is a common feature of the replication cycle for many viruses by which they hijack the cell’s transcription machinery to make copies of themselves.
Highlight(blue) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 314 · Location 6871
The first part of the experiment is whether this new genome can control the development of a viable fetus that will progress to full term and birth.
Highlight(blue) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 316 · Location 6914
genotype)
Highlight(blue) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 316 · Location 6915
phenotype).
Highlight(blue) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 317 · Location 6922
elucidation of the CRISPR-Cas9
Highlight(yellow) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 317 · Location 6937
degeneracy.
Highlight(blue) – Taking the Wrong Path: Nervous System Disorders of Development > Page 318 · Location 6950
the developing embryo. The general term for substances that cause birth defects is teratogen.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 318 · Location 6961
axon myelination,
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 318 · Location 6962
continues until nearly the end of adolescence.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6968
telomeres at the end of chromosomes inside the nucleus of cells may only be capable of a finite number of divisions. Each time a cell divides,
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6970
At the whole organism level, joints wear out and blood vessels harden or get clogged with deposits.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6972
accumulation of more or less random degeneration in multiple tissues
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6973
telomere shortening
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6979
In cognition, the accumulation of knowledge and experience tend to compensate in later years for slightly slower reactions and short-term memory capacity.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6982
Fluid intelligence
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 319 · Location 6985
Crystallized intelligence
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 320 · Location 7000
tennis, which seems to have benefits over and above simpler kinds of exercise, such as jogging.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 320 · Location 7001
choline
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 320 · Location 7005
nootropics)
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 320 · Location 7009
Aging is a major risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular disease that affects the brain,
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 321 · Location 7018
The neurons that die in the initial stages of Alzheimer’s disease are primarily cholinergic (they use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter),
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 321 · Location 7026
Parkinson’s disease is associated with death of dopaminergic cells in a specific basal ganglia nucleus called the substantia nigra (which is actually in the midbrain). The death of these cells interferes with the patient’s ability to make voluntary movements or voluntary corrections during walking, such as stepping over an obstacle.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 321 · Location 7028
Researchers have had difficulty telling whether this disease is due to a genetic deficiency that simply takes a long time to play out or a combination of a genetic susceptibility plus an environmental trigger.
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 321 · Location 7032
(MPTP)
Highlight(blue) – The Aging Brain > Page 322 · Location 7050
Ischemic strokes in which vessel blockages produce loss of nutrient and waste transport. Hemorrhagic strokes in which blood vessels leak blood into the brain.
Highlight(orange) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 326 · Location 7099
psychology
Highlight(orange) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 326 · Location 7099
psychiatry
Highlight(pink) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 326 · Location 7099
The main reason for this division is the former’s fundamental belief in the causality of mental states.
Highlight(pink) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 326 · Location 7107
therapy is used to assess the effectiveness and progress of the pharmacological treatment rather than as the primary treatment tool itself. The most sophisticated approaches may use pharmacological therapy to potentiate cognitive or behavioral therapy.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 329 · Location 7163
Traumatic events cause an overactive adrenaline response, which persists after the event, making an individual hyper-responsive to future fearful situations.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 330 · Location 7189
Most anti-depressants (particularly recent ones like Prozac) are designed to elevate serotonin levels; many also tend to elevate the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 331 · Location 7208
DBS stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has produced immediate symptom relief in thousands of such Parkinson’s patients (the subthalamic nucleus is part of the neural circuit in the basal ganglia that also includes the substantia nigra, the brain areas primarily affected by Parkinson’s disease).
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 331 · Location 7220
retrograde
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 331 · Location 7221
anterograde
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 332 · Location 7244
GABA transmission (GABA is the most important and ubiquitous fast inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain).
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 333 · Location 7261
some internal source in the brain is generating activity in auditory areas that the schizophrenic cannot distinguish from actual hearing.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 333 · Location 7263
anhedonia
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 334 · Location 7289
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that lead to repetitive behaviors in order to alleviate the anxiety related to the thought.
Highlight(blue) – Looking at the Causes and Types of Mental Illness > Page 334 · Location 7294
OCD has been linked to an abnormality in the serotonin neurotransmitter system and is sometimes successfully treated with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 336 · Location 7317
typical antipsychotic
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 336 · Location 7319
atypical antipsychotic
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 336 · Location 7319
medications,
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 336 · Location 7330
(GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain).
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 336 · Location 7338
serotonin enhancers
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 337 · Location 7343
Attempts to supply dopamine to make up for its loss in the substantia nigra, as in Parkinson’s disease, failed because dopamine does not cross the blood–brain barrier if administered into the blood stream. However, its precursor in the pathway for its synthesis in cells, L-dopa, does. L-dopa injections can mitigate Parkinson’s symptoms for several years but eventually becomes ineffective.
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 337 · Location 7346
dyskinesias.
Highlight(blue) – The Promise of Pharmaceuticals > Page 337 · Location 7359
Cannabinoids found in marijuana activate receptors called CB1 and CB2 that are involved in the brain’s pain and immune control systems.
Part 5: The Part of Tens
Highlight(blue) – The Thalamus, Gateway to the Neocortex > Page 342 · Location 7405
Thalamus,
Highlight(blue) – The Cerebellum > Page 343 · Location 7429
The function of the cerebellum is to modulate and coordinate motor behavior.
Highlight(blue) – The Cerebellum > Page 343 · Location 7433
process has become programmed within your cerebellum and its connections to motor cortex.
Highlight(blue) – The Hippocampus > Page 344 · Location 7445
The hippocampus can play back a sequence of events in context and activate the cortical areas that were activated by the event itself. This playback occurs typically during sleep, especially during REM sleep. The result of the playback is that the memories that were stored for a short term in the hippocampus cause long-term storage back in the neocortical areas that were activated during the original episode.
Highlight(blue) – Wernicke’s and Broca’s Areas > Page 344 · Location 7463
area on the right side of the brain corresponding to Wernicke’s on the left processes tone of voice indicating irony, humor, and other aspects of what is called prosody.
Highlight(blue) – The Fusiform Face Area > Page 345 · Location 7476
The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of the medial temporal lobe that underlies our learned ability to recognize faces or even, in some cases, discriminate models of cars or species of birds that are similar in appearance.
Highlight(blue) – The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex > Page 346 · Location 7508
salient
Highlight(blue) – The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex > Page 346 · Location 7508
The main brain area responsible for working memory is the lateral prefrontal cortex.
Highlight(blue) – The Substantia Nigra (Basal Ganglia) > Page 347 · Location 7521
The basal ganglia are a complex, interconnected set of subcortical nuclei that control behavior at the level below the neocortex. The substantia nigra performs a crucial modulatory role in this system. One reason that the basal ganglia have become relatively well known is Parkinson’s disease, which is caused by a degeneration of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra.
Highlight(blue) – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex > Page 348 · Location 7540
you can think of the lateral prefrontal cortex as holding the content of thought and the ACC as selecting that content.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 19: Ten Tricks of Neurons That Make Them Do What They Do > Page 349 · Location 7551
Neurons are cells.
Highlight(blue) – Chapter 19: Ten Tricks of Neurons That Make Them Do What They Do > Page 349 · Location 7553
This specialization evolved because it allowed organisms to increase their survival chances by moving within their environment based on sensing things like food, toxins, temperature, and predators.
Highlight(blue) – Overcoming Neurons’ Size Limit > Page 350 · Location 7561
Neurons receive information via synapses.
Highlight(blue) – Overcoming Neurons’ Size Limit > Page 350 · Location 7570
Synapses are either electrical or chemical.
Highlight(blue) – Getting Specialized for the Senses > Page 352 · Location 7612
cause action potentials
Highlight(blue) – Computing with Ion Channel Currents > Page 352 · Location 7617
When ion channels are open and allow sodium ions to flow through, the neuron is excited. It is inhibited when potassium or chloride channels are open.
Bookmark – Computing with Ion Channel Currents > Page 353 · Location 7619
Highlight(blue) – Speeding Things Up with Myelination > Page 354 · Location 7660
electrophysiologists
Highlight(blue) – Changing Synaptic Weights to Adapt and Learn > Page 356 · Location 7686
The effort to uncover principles of learning and memory used to be called the search for the engram, the memory trace in the brain that constituted a memory.
Highlight(blue) – Changing Synaptic Weights to Adapt and Learn > Page 356 · Location 7697
Learning in the hippocampus is unique because it consists first of changes in synaptic strength, followed by growth of new neural connections, and then new neurons.
Highlight(blue) – Correcting Developmental Disorders through Gene Therapy > Page 358 · Location 7726
Retroviruses can be engineered with sequences that knock out host genes or insert new genes into the host.
Highlight(blue) – Augmenting the Brain with Genetic Manipulation > Page 359 · Location 7740
how to grow a larger human neocortex in the next few years.
Highlight(blue) – Correcting Brain Injury with Stem Cells > Page 360 · Location 7761
Neural stem cells transplanted into a brain area where the patient’s own cells have died, such as the Subtantia Nigra in Parkinson’s disease, may produce replacement cells as the stem cells sense their local environment and differentiate into the needed neural types.
Highlight(blue) – Using Deep Brain Stimulation to Treat Neurological Disorders > Page 360 · Location 7776
Some Parkinson’s patients, for example, can be seen to exhibit the typical stooped posture and shuffling gate with the device off, but, as soon as the current is turned on, they are able to walk and engage in sports like basketball.
Highlight(blue) – Building a Better Brain through Neuroprostheses > Page 363 · Location 7835
Experiments have demonstrated that humans (and monkeys) can use electrode arrays implanted in their motor cortices to move computer cursors and artificial arms just by thinking about doing
Highlight(blue) – Building a Better Brain through Neuroprostheses > Page 363 · Location 7845
the techniques for brain-computer interfacing are already here, already being used, and rapidly improving.
Highlight(blue) – Engaging in Computer-Controlled Learning > Page 364 · Location 7853
Highly proficient computer tutors are being embodied in avatars, computer simulations of teaching characters with whom the student interacts.
Highlight(blue) – Treating Disease with Nanobots > Page 364 · Location 7864
Nanotechnology
Glossary
Highlight(blue) – Page 367 · Location 7892
afferent:
Highlight(blue) – Page 367 · Location 7894
ageusia:
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7903
amygdala:
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7903
limbic
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7908
apraxia:
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7916
associative memory:
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7917
The ability to remember a relationship between two different things, usually by modifying synapses so that particular neurons fire to the constellation of associated items.
Highlight(blue) – Page 368 · Location 7930
basal ganglia: A set of subcortical nuclei that control movement sequences via their output to the thalamus.
Highlight(blue) – Page 369 · Location 7936
biogenic amines:
Highlight(blue) – Page 369 · Location 7937
catecholamines
Highlight(blue) – Page 369 · Location 7950
central pattern generator:
Highlight(blue) – Page 369 · Location 7950
descriptive term for the neural organization within the spinal cord that coordinates four-or two-limbed movement without the necessity for cortical input.
Highlight(yellow) – Page 369 · Location 7956
notochord.
Highlight(blue) – Page 370 · Location 7963
codon:
Highlight(blue) – Page 370 · Location 7971
Cortisol is the primary stress hormone
Bookmark – Page 370 · Location 7984
Highlight(blue) – Page 371 · Location 7995
dopamine: A
Highlight(blue) – Page 371 · Location 7995
biogenic amine neurotransmitter.
Highlight(blue) – Page 371 · Location 8007
efferent:
Highlight(blue) – Page 372 · Location 8048
glial
Highlight(blue) – Page 373 · Location 8062
hippocampus: A limbic system structure involved in converting short-term memories to long-term memories.
Bookmark – Page 374 · Location 8111
Highlight(blue) – Page 374 · Location 8111
macular degeneration:
Highlight(blue) – Page 375 · Location 8135
metabotropic (receptor):
Highlight(blue) – Page 376 · Location 8148
myelin:
Bookmark – Page 376 · Location 8160
Highlight(blue) – Page 376 · Location 8171
Almost all neural regions in the occipital lobe are involved in vision.
Highlight(blue) – Page 377 · Location 8185
temporal lobe
Highlight(blue) – Page 377 · Location 8191
somatic
Highlight(blue) – Page 377 · Location 8192
autonomic
Highlight(blue) – Page 377 · Location 8192
enteric
Highlight(blue) – Page 377 · Location 8201
pinna:
Highlight(blue) – Page 378 · Location 8207
postsynaptic: The receiving side of a synapse,
Highlight(blue) – Page 378 · Location 8213
presbycusis: The decline in hearing sensitivity as a function of age,
Highlight(blue) – Page 378 · Location 8215
presynaptic:
Highlight(blue) – Page 379 · Location 8244
nucleic acid
Highlight(blue) – Page 379 · Location 8244
protein.
Highlight(blue) – Page 379 · Location 8255
semantic memory:
Highlight(blue) – Page 379 · Location 8259
serotonin: A biogenic amine neurotransmitter.
Highlight(blue) – Page 379 · Location 8265
episodic memory.
Highlight(blue) – Page 380 · Location 8271
spinocerebellar tract:
Highlight(blue) – Page 380 · Location 8283
substantia nigra:
Highlight(blue) – Page 381 · Location 8312
temporal lobe: The area of the neocortex on each side of the brain.
Highlight(blue) – Page 381 · Location 8329
trigeminal nerve: The cranial nerve V that sends touch, temperature, and pain information from the face to the brain. It consists of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular.
About the Author
Bookmark – Page 399 · Location 9714