Johnny Cash and MSA

Johnny Cash

Multiple system atrophy

Orthostatic hypotension

It’s all in your head, whether it’s mental confusion or a skinned knee. All disease is experienced through the nervous system.


< All known mammalian prion diseases were caused by the prion protein (PrP) until 2015, when a prion form of alpha-synuclein was hypothesized to cause multiple system atrophy (MSA).[10]

“The faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wandering attention, over and over again, is the very root of judgment, character, and will.” [ZB: 69–71]   


The text provides a comprehensive overview of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and its underlying mechanisms. It explains that PD is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the loss of dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra region of the brain. The symptoms of PD include disruptions in gait, freezing of steps, loss of balance, facial-masking, altered handwriting, weakened voice, slow movements, tremors, rigidity, and a general loss of dexterity.

The text also describes the role of dopamine in the brain and its impact on motor control. It explains that dopamine released by the substantia nigra amplifies activity in the direct pathway between the cortex and muscle nerves, supporting cortical activation of movement. Reduction of dopamine in the substantia nigra leads to a decrease in “higher” direct cortical control of muscles. Additionally, dopamine is important in regulating the frequency of brain waves, particularly in the basal ganglia and subthalamic regions, which are important for the preparation of voluntary movements.

The text mentions that while pharmaceuticals like levodopa can alleviate the symptoms of PD, there is currently no cure for the disease. It also discusses Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) as a non-pharmaceutical option that has been effective in relieving symptoms in many PD patients.

Overall, the text provides a detailed and informative explanation of PD, its symptoms, and the underlying mechanisms involved. It also highlights the current limitations in treatment options and the ongoing research in the field.

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